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Author Guidelines

All contributions to J Nat Sc Biol Med., are reviewed editorially, by peer review and copyediting process with the understanding that they have not been published previously and are not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Author/s is/are responsible for all statements made in their work and obtaining necessary permission to republish any previously published illustrations and/or other relevant materials.

Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts must conform to the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” http://www.icmje.org/. Contributions and Manuscripts must be written in English and submitted exclusively to J Nat Sc Biol Med. Manuscripts must be typewritten (times new roman, double-spaced) with 1 inch margins and space at the top and bottom of the page. We highly encourage authors to submit manuscripts by e. mail (See submission); and contact the editors for any necessary instructions/clarifications.

Covering Letter
Disclose all possible conflicts of interest (e.g., funding sources for consultancies or studies of products). A brief indication of the importance of the paper to the concerned field of research is helpful in gaining appropriate peer review.

Author-Suggested Reviewers(Optional)
The authors are encouraged to suggest individuals who specialize in the topic(s) your manuscript to be considered to review your manuscript. You may suggest maximum of 5 reviewers, with full contact details including phone numbers, fax number and email address.

Preparation of Manuscript
Your Manuscript should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized – paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. You should use 12 pt Times New Roman font. Authors should take care over the fonts which are used in the document, including fonts within graphics. Fonts should be restricted to Times New Roman, Symbol and Zapf Dingbats.
Title : Should be in Title Case ; The first character in each word in the title have to be capitalized.

A research paper typically should include in the following order
Abstract
Keywords
Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgements (If any)
References
Figure legends
Tables
Appendixes (if necessary)
Abbreviations (if necessary)
Abstract – Limit of 250 Words
A brief summary of the research. The abstract should include a brief introduction, a description of the hypothesis tested, the approach used to test the hypothesis, the results seen and the conclusions of the work.
Key words
Please, write no more than six keywords. Write specific keywords. They should be written left aligned, arranged alphabetically in 12pt Times Roman, and the line must begin with the words Keywords boldfaced.

Introduction

Description of the research area, pertinent background information, and the hypotheses tested in the study should be included under this section.  The introduction should provide sufficient background information such that a scientifically literate reader can understand and appreciate the experiments to be described. The introduction MUST include in-text citations including references to pertinent reviews and primary scientific literature. The specific aims of the project should be identified along with a rationale for the specific experiments and other work performed.

Materials and Methods

Materials and/or subjects utilized in the study as well as the procedures undertaken to complete the work. The methods should be described in sufficient detail such that they could be repeated by a competent researcher. Please include the company sources for all uncommon reagents (kits, drugs, etc).  Illustrations and/or tables may be helpful in describing complex equipment or elaborate procedures. The statistical tool used to analyze the data should be mentioned. All procedures involving experimental animals or human subjects must accompany with statement on necessary ethical approval from appropriate ethics committee.

Results

Data acquired from the research with appropriate statistical analysis described in the methods section should be included in this section.  The results section should describe the rational for each experiment, the results obtained and its significance. Results should be organized into figures and tables with descriptive captions. The captions, although brief, should tell the reader the method used, explain any abbreviations included in the figure, and should end with a statement as to the conclusion of the figure. Qualitative as well as quantitative results should be included if applicable.

Discussion/Conclusion

This section should relate the results section to current understanding of the scientific problems being investigated in the field. Description of relevant references to other work/s in the field should be included here. This section also allows you to discuss the significance of your results - i.e. does the data support the hypotheses you set out to test?  This section should end with new answers/questions that arise as a result of your work.

Tables and Figures

Tables 

Each table must start on a separate sheet. They should be numbered with Roman numerals according to their sequence in the text, and have a short self-explanatory heading.  Use SI units. Tables should include vertical rules, but horizontal rules should separate column headings from the content. Authors should keep in mind the page layout of the journal when designing tables.  Tables that fit onto one printed page are preferred.  Detailed explanations of symbols, units, statistics and abbreviations should follow below the table.

Illustrations 

Figures for final production should be submitted as electronic files and hard copy so that the editorial office can ensure that the output of electronic files matches the hardcopy. Please pay particular attention to the guidelines below.  The editorial office cannot undertake preparation of manuscripts and illustrations not conforming to journal style. Manuscripts of insufficient quality will be returned immediately without refereeing. A high standard of illustration (both line and photo) is an editorial priority. All illustrations should be prepared for printing to fit 80 x 240 mm (column width) or 169 mm by up to 240 mm (full page) size.  It is preferred that the full-page length is not used and that authors keep in mind that the caption will be placed underneath the figure.  In the event that full-page length is necessary for plates, captions will have to appear on adjacent pages.  Figure(s) must be numbered consecutively in the text. Compound figures with more than one micrograph or photo should be referred by a single figure reference (e.g. Figure 1), and individual parts should be labeled with capitalized letters in the lower left-hand corner.  Lettering should be of a sans-serif type (i.e. fonts without serifs such as Arial) with a minimum published size of 4.2 mm (12 pt).  Descriptive labeling in the figures should be clearly readable, and all lettering should have a minimum published size of 6 pt (2.1 mm) for labeling items on photographs or in line art is recommended and a maximum size of 10 pt is suggested.  Use a scale bar to indicate magnifications and place in the lower right corner if possible.  Computer prepared photographic images must be at a minimum of 350 dpi at the final publication size.  Lower resolution will result in pixilation and poor quality images.  These should be submitted as JPEG, TIFF or PPT files, but encapsulated postscript (EPS) format is also acceptable. 

Computer drawn figures are accepted provided they are of high quality.  Please note that graphs produced by many statistic packages are rarely adequate. In particular, letter quality on axes and captions are often poor.  Such figures should be exported into an accepted graphics package and lettering rendered using a text function. Authors should note that .dot, .bmp, and .pat fills should be avoided.  Do not use postscript fill patterns as these are often based on bit map patterns that result in screening patterns during final reproduction.  When filling illustrations, use fills such as lines, tints or solids.  Line width minimum is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm). Also avoid the use of bitmap scans to render text and detail.  Text should be saved as text at a minimum text size of 6 pt (2.1 mm). Please submit line art as Corel Draw, Adobe Illustrator, or EPS files. These must be at a minimum resolution of 800 DPI at publication size. High resolution may be necessary where fine line detail is present.

For graphs Excel graphs are also acceptable. Note that vertical axes must all be at the same scale especially where the paper compares between them. Otherwise they should be produced as separate figures. Avoid 3D plots when presenting 2D data. Where electronic figures are submitted, please submit a hard copy also at final acceptance stage so that it can be checked against the electronic files during proof preparation.

Table and Figure legends

Figure and table legends should be included at the end of the manuscript.  Figure legends should include a statement at the end of each legend about reproduction size (e.g. at full page width, at column width). They should be double spaced and typed in the journal format.  Explanations should be brief and authors should keep in mind that legends will be placed below figures.

Acknowledgements – Limit of 100 Words

This is a brief section crediting the people who have helped make your manuscript possible and who aided you in your work but are not part of the authorship. Please mention all applicable grants and other funding that supported your work.