Harmful effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks on the bone metabolism of laboratory female rats
Keywords:Soft drinks, Calcium, Magnesium, Osteocalcin, Alkaline phosphate, Bone sialoprotein, Bone histopathology
Consumption of soft drinks can result in depletion and deficiency of calcium, and thus increase the risk of osteoporosis and exposure to fracture. The present study was performed to inspect the consequences of long term usage of soft drink on metabolism and histopathology of bone. Twenty-four female albino white rats (Rattus norvigicus) were randomly divided into six groups each containing four animals: two control groups (1 & 2) were fed with regular pellet; two coca-cola groups (3 & 4) were fed with standard pellet diet and given coca cola (2 ml) once a day and two Seven up (7up) groups (5 & 6) were fed with standard pellet diet and given 7up (2 ml) once a day. The treatment continued for two different timelines i.e. groups 1, 3 and 5 were treated for two weeks, while groups 2, 4 and 6 were treated for four months. Cardiac puncture technique was used for taken blood samples for measurement of calcium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, Vitamin D3 and bone forming biomarkers including alkaline phosphate and osteocalcin. In addition, level of bone resorption biomarker bone sialoprotein in serum was also measured. Calcium and inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphate, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein considerably elevated (p≤0.05) in rats which were given soft drinks daily for 4 months. Magnesium and Vitamin D3 significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in rats treated with coca cola for 4 months compared with the control and the other groups. Histopathological study revealed changes in the bone of groups fed with coca cola and 7up for 4 months. It showed many empty lacunae, osteocytes inside indistinct lacunae and numerous resorption cavities of inconstant size in the trabecular plates. In conclusion, chronic consumption of soft drinks has harmful effects on bone health and a significant rise in the concentrations of bone remodeling markers demonstrated a rise in bone -turnover -rate and increased risk of osteoporosis.